A cill is the horizontal finish to the wall below the lower edge of a window opening on to which wind driven rain will run from the hard, smooth, impermeable surface of window glass. The function of a cill is to protect the wall below a window. Cills are formed below the edge of a window and shaped or formed to slope out and project beyond the external face of the wall, so that water runs off. The cill should project at least 45 mm beyond the face of the wall below and have a drip on the underside of the projection.
The cavity insulation shown in Fig. 77 is carried up behind the stone cill to avoid a cold bridge effect and a dpc is fixed behind the cill as a barrier to moisture penetration.
A variety of materials may be used as a cill such as natural stone, cast stone, concrete, tile, brick and non-ferrous metals. The choice of a particular material for a cill depends on cost, availability and to a large extent on appearance. Details of the materials used and the construction of cilis.
As a barrier to the penetration of rain to the inside face of a cavity wall it is good practice to continue the cavity up and behind the cills as illustrated in Volume 2. Where cills of stone, cast stone and concrete are used the cill may extend across the cavity. As a barrier to rain penetration it has been practice to bed a dpc below these cills and extend it up behind the cill, as illustrated in Volume 2. Providing the cill has no joints in its length, its ends are built in at jambs and the material of the cill is sufficiently dense to cause most of the rainwater to run off, there seems little purpose in these under sill dpcs or trays.
The threshold to door openings serves as a finish to protect a wall or concrete floor slab below the door, as illustrated in Volume 2. Thresholds are commonly formed as part of a step up to external doors as part of the concrete floor slab with the top surface of the threshold sloping out. Alternatively, a natural stone or cast stone threshold may be formed.
Fig. 77 Jamb lining to wide cavity.