Dowels. Cramps - Walls - Stones.

Tuesday, February 8, 2011

Dowels.

To maintain parapet stones in their correct position in a wall, slate dowels are used. The stones in a parapet are not kept in position by the weight of walling above and these stones are, therefore, usually fixed with slate dowels. These dowels consist of square pins of slate that are fitted to holes cut in adjacent stones, as illustrated in Fig. 113.

Cramps.
Coping stones are bedded on top of a parapet wall as a protection against water soaking down into the wall below. There is a possibility that the coping (capping) stones may suffer some slight movement and cracks in the joints between theni open up. Rain may then saturate the parapet wall below and frost action may contribute to some movement and eventual damage.
To keep coping stones in place a system of cramps is used. Either slate or non-ferrous metal is used to cramp the stones together.

A short length of slate, shaped with dovetail ends, is set in cement grout (cement and water) in dovetail grooves in the ends of adjacent stones, as illustrated in Fig. 11 5A.

As an alternative a gunmetal cramp is set in a groove and mortice in the end of each stone and bedded in cement mortar, as illustrated in Fig. 115B.

For coping stones cut from limestone or sandstone a sheet metal weathering is sometimes dressed over coping stones. The weathering of lead is welted and tacked in position over the stones.


Fig. 115 (A) Slate cramp. (B) Metal Cramp.

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